The developer is the party which pays for building and construction work to be carried out.
The Working Environment Act describes building and construction work as:
- Work carried out in connection with the erection and alteration of buildings and structures, including assembly work.
- The erection and alteration of roads, tunnels, bridges, harbours and similar facilities.
- Excavations and earthworks in connection with building and construction projects.
- Laying pipelines and cables.
- Repair and maintenance of building and construction projects.
- Demolition and dismantling of building and construction projects and parts thereof.
Before starting planning the building and construction work, the developer must declare whether the building phase will involve more than one enterprise working on the building site at the same time. If this is the case, the developer is also obliged to ensure that:
- The boundaries of the safety arrangements are stated in the shared areas in which employees of several enterprises are working or spend time.
- Health and safety are coordinated during both the project phase and the implementation phase.
If there are more than 1 employer and more than 10 people employed on site simultaneously, the developer must also ensure that:
- A health and safety plan (PSS) is compiled.
- A log of the specific conditions relating to health and safety in connection with future works at the finished building or facility.
- Startup meetings are held with employers who will be working on site and members of the building site’s working environment organisation.
- Safety meetings are held with employers and the working environment organisation on the building site, where it will also be ensured that the decisions made at the meeting will be communicated to everyone on site, including to people who do not have Danish as a first language.
- Safety rounds take place at least once a fortnight.
The building site must also be reported to the Working Environment Authority if the building work is of a certain size and/or extent.
Furthermore, developers are responsible for helping to ensure that enterprises and their employees can carry out their work on the building site entirely correctly in terms of health and safety.
The developer must also ensure that the people working on the site can contribute information and receive notification of decisions and discussions at the safety meeting. Meetings may be supported with interpreting services in the relevant languages if necessary.
If it is anticipated that more than one enterprise will be working at the same time on the building site, the developer must appoint a coordinator for the project phase – a working environment coordinator (P) and an coordinator for the implementation phase – a working environment coordinator (B). This could be the same person.
The developer’s coordinator(s) must meet the expertise and training requirements applicable to coordinators, depending on the size of the site.
If the developer himself or persons within the developer’s enterprise do not wish to act as coordinators or do not meet the expertise requirements to do so, the developer may allow other persons or enterprises to do these tasks. However, the developer is unable to transfer responsibility for his obligations.
Boundaries of safety arrangements in shared areas
Shared areas are all the locations on the building site where several enterprises are working at the same time.
When more than one enterprise is to carry out work on the building site at the same time, the developer must agree with the employers who is responsible for establishing, maintaining and removing scaffolding and work platforms, traffic and access routes, railings and covers, etc. on roofs and orientation lighting, etc. in shared areas. This also includes responsibility for e.g. snow clearance, cleaning and various inspections.
If more than ten persons will be employed on the building site at the same time, the agreements must be specified in the building site’s Health and Safety Plan.
If, during work, it turns out that there are more shared areas, or different shared areas to those assumed or if, for example, there is a change of the enterprises responsible for arrangements in the shared areas, a new delimitation, a new startup meeting and new agreements with the individual employers must be compiled.
Examples of shared areas may include:
- Work areas in which several enterprises will be working at the same time.
- Traffic and access routes.
- The site huts.
- Material locations.
- Waste locations.
- Fencing and signs.
- Orientation lighting.
- Building power with switchboards and sub switchboards, plus a water supply to the building site and site hut area.
Notification of the building site to the Working Environment Authority
Before work commences, the developer must report the building site to the nearest Working Environment Authority Centre. However, this is applicable only if the building site is expected to be functional for more than 30 days and more than 20 employees will be working there at the same time. The building site must also be reported if the anticipated amount of work on the building site exceeds 500 man-days.
The developer must report the building site on a special form in electronic or hard-copy format. This report can be downloaded from www.at.dk or www.virk.dk. A copy of the report must be placed in a visible location on the building site so that everyone can see that the building site has been reported legally.
Reporting to the municipality
The developer must also report various tasks and facilities to the municipality before work commences.
This is applicable to e.g.:
- Façade renovation, e.g. sandblasting.
- Surface treatment of freestanding structures.
- Demolition of buildings and other noisy and dusty activities.
- Asphalt facilities.
- Facilities for treatment of contaminated soil.
- Facilities for crushing of building materials.
Coordination during planning
The developer must ensure that a working environment coordinator (P) is appointed when it is expected that more than one 1 employer will be working on the building site at the same time.
The working environment coordinator (P) must work on behalf of the developer to compile a Health and Safety Plan (PSS) if it is expected that there will be at least two enterprises employing more than ten people will be working at the same time at any given time over the building phase.
The developer is responsible for ensuring that the planners and the working environment coordinator (P) cooperate on working environment coordination of planning. Coordination shall ensure that the project documentation takes into account health and safety over the building phase and during repair, alteration and maintenance of the completed construction.
However, the planner holds full responsibility for ensuring that the project documentation is formulated such that it is possible to comply with the Working Environment Act.
The coordinator works on behalf of the developer to produce a Health and Safety Plan (PSS) and a log of specific working conditions for future works at the completed construction. Coordination must help to ensure that:
- sufficient time is allocated in the building project to carry out the various works or work phases,
- appropriate planning takes place with the various tasks in the right sequence, given the architectonic, technical and organisational solutions selected,
- the various work processes can be carried out using suitable technical aids and appropriate working positions, and
- necessary descriptions are available around routes for vehicles and pedestrians on the site irrespective of the weather, e.g. drainage and snow clearance.
One example of technical selection may be when a decision is made for a roof structure to be complete before wall cladding is fitted. This will require special planning and agreements on what aids and access routes must be present on site at a given time.
One example of organisational selection may be the developer’s selection of contract form (total, principal or individual trade contract) or the working environment organisation in the building project.
Building log for operating conditions
The developer must ensure that the working environment coordinator (P) compiles a log adapted to the characteristics of the building or facility which includes a list of special conditions in respect of health and safety that ought to be taken into account in connection with future works, e.g. repair or maintenance works.
The project design officer must supply a description of the characteristics of the building or facility (structure, design, prescribed materials, etc.) if this is of significance to health and safety when working with the repair or maintenance of the building or facility in question.
A coordinator and the project design officer can compile a joint list/log.
Coordination on building sites irrespective of size
The developer must ensure that a working environment coordinator (B) is appointed if more than one 1 employer will be engaged on the building site at the same time at any given time throughout the building phase.
The working environment coordinator must ensure that collective coordination and planning of health and safety take place in relation to all the enterprises engaged on the building site, particularly involving work and traffic in shared areas. The coordinator must also coordinate:
- The cooperation of the various enterprises with regard to working environment work on the building site. This is also true of enterprises which follow one another on the building site.
- Enterprises’ use of the health and safety plan (PSS), if a PSS is required.
- Enterprises’ checks to ensure that the work processes are being implemented according to the regulations agreed with the developer.
The working environment coordinator (B) therefore has to coordinate the enterprises’ inspection to ensure that the work processes are taking place in accordance with the agreed guidelines, such as:
- Order and cleanliness on the building site.
- Good access to the work sites.
- Handling of various building materials. E.g. ensuring that there are no cranes over work areas where people are standing.
- Ensuring that responsible enterprises maintain electricity cables and other installations on the building site and check them before they are commissioned, and then regularly thereafter.
- Ensuring that the developer delimits and the enterprise sets up storage sites and locations for materials, particularly if hazardous substances or products are to be stored.
- Hazardous waste.
- How waste and rubble are stored and removed.
- Ensuring that enterprises adapt to the actual time that is to be used on the various types of work or work phases as work on the building site progresses.
- Cooperation between employers and independents.
- Interaction with the activities taking place on or close to the building site. Dwellings or business properties may be inconvenienced by noise, dust, etc.
Coordination of health and safety on larger building sites during the implementation phase (more than 10 people at the same time)
The developer must ensure that a working environment coordinator (B) on building sites with more than one employer and more than ten employees at the same time:
- Coordinates the employers’ arrangements which promote the health and safety of the workers in the shared areas.
- Holds one or more startup meetings for employers and members of the working environment organisation at the building site. Employers that conclude agreements, at a later time, to carry out work at the building site must also receive information at a meeting with the working environment coordinator (B). The developer must ensure that the coordinator receives information on subcontractors’ enterprise names, addresses, telephone numbers and contacts, along with the work to be carried out by the subcontractor in question and how many staff the subcontractor employs on the building site.
- Holds regular safety meetings at least once a fortnight, ideally in connection with the building meetings. The coordinator asks the employers and the members of the working environment organisation on the building site to attend the safety meeting. All subcontractors must also be invited and participate. The working environment coordinator may convene extraordinary meetings as required, e.g. following serious accidents, poisoning or “near-accidents”.
- Chairs the safety meetings and is responsible for ensuring that the minutes are sent to the meeting’s participants, the developer, all supervisors, the enterprises involved, the members of the working environment organisation and any shop stewards.
- Implements safety rounds at least once a fortnight on site. The principles with regard to how the safety rounds are to be undertaken and who is to participate in these rounds are established at the developer’s safety meetings.
The working environment coordinator (B) must check, during personal contact and presence on the building site, that there is compliance with the agreements on health and safety between the developer and the employers, and that the cooperation on safety in shared areas is working.
The coordinator also has to check that the employers and others are complying with decisions from the safety meetings.
Employers on the building site have to take into account the instructions of the working environment coordinator. If the employer uses noisy machinery, for example, in a shared area, the coordinator can ask him to use less noisy machinery in order to reduce the noise. However, the employer can choose another way of reducing noise. Therefore, he does not need to follow the method specified by the coordinator. Such special risks must be discussed regularly at the safety meetings, so – for example – noisy and dusty work is planned and organised such that other people on the building site are not subjected to effects which are unnecessary or harmful to health.
The working environment coordinator (B) must ensure – and check – that only the enterprises and people who are working on the building site have access to the building site.