Minors under 18 may only operate cranes if this work is taking place in connection with training which aims to give them skills (e.g. as apprentices), and if they receive the proper instruction and hold the necessary certificates.
The maximum wind strength under which the crane may work must be described in the crane’s usage instructions.
Even a light wind may cause the load to swing and can therefore make lifting unsafe.
In each individual situation, the crane driver must assess whether he can undertake the lifting safely so that neither the gear nor the ground assistant are endangered.
When a load is secured or released to a crane hook, this is known as hooking. The ground assistant must have received instruction on how to carry out the work, including the specific hooking work. The ground assistant ought to have completed a relevant course. These courses are offered by the technical colleges and by some suppliers of hooking gear.
The ground assistant must be familiar with the labelling on the hooking gear, which provides information on the permitted load for chains, webbing, etc. and maximum webbing angles.
A startup meeting should be held prior to installation work. Here, the ground assistant and crane driver review the installation sequence and guidelines for the lifting job in question.
Always follow the specification on the load/delivery note as regards hooking.
Before final lifting, the load must be lifted slowly clear of the base, and you must then check that:
- the load is equally balanced,
- the webbing and hooking gear are seated correctly,
- the webbing is not trapped,
- the load does not remain on the base.
When positioning the load, the ground assistant must ensure that:
- the load can be positioned securely, supported safely and such that the hooking equipment can be removed without risk,
- the hooking equipment is kept taut while any supporting of the load takes place.
The gear can be returned when the hooking equipment has been suspended safely from the crane hook and secured to prevent trapping.
If there is any doubt about the safety of the hooking, the weight of the load or any other aspect, work must stop. It is the responsibility of the ground assistant, and he must subsequently consult the boss/crane driver.
If lifting is already in progress, the driver must immediately lower the load to the nearest safe resting position.
The ground assistant and crane driver are entitled and obliged to refuse to do a lift if they feel that the lifting in question may be dangerous.
Hooking gear must be fitted with a legible sign or other display. The SWL/WLL must be specified here, along with the date of the last inspection.
The hooking equipment may also be supplied with a colour code which indicates when the last inspection took place; cf. below.
Hooking gear must be checked every time it is used, and it must undergo a main inspection at least once a year.
Follow the supplier’s instructions on when the gear should be discarded. There must be Danish usage instructions on the hooking gear to the necessary extent.
Hooking gear should always be stored properly in a dry, airy place. Fibre ropes in particular must be protected against direct sunlight as ultraviolet rays will break down the rope. Discarded gear must be kept separate from other gear.
- Crane and hoisting hooks must be provided with devices to prevent them becoming unhooked.
- Galvanised hooking gear must not be used for lifting jobs in saltwater.
- Wire webbing must not kink when tensioned.
- Chains under load must not be twisted. Shortening must take place using an approved shortening hook, and joints must be made using approved joint links.
- Webbing/fibre ropes must be protected from sharp edges.
Joint lifting with cranes must be planned carefully. This task must be managed by an expert, who must maintain safe communication with both crane drivers.
Both cranes should be of the same type, and ideally use the same speed regulation system. At no time may the load exceed 75% of the capacity of each individual crane. If necessary, special gear must be used which ensures correct weight distribution and vertical lifting.