Lay out the building site so that work can be carried out properly. This means that safety on and around the construction work must be taken into account as early as the planning phase.
You should, for example, plan how to:
- ensure that technical aids can be used,
- set up temporary railings (on both storey floors and roofs),
- make holes in floors and roofs safe to prevent falls,
- suspend safety nets in the structure without hazards,
- secure scaffolding,
- make sure the building facility is clean and tidy,
- install safe electrical installations and good lighting – particularly in shared areas for a number of contractors,
- ensure risk-free fitting of building elements, such as concrete elements, roof coffers and trapezoidal plates,
- establish permanent work areas for bending reinforcement bars, cutting timber, etc.
- establish good access and storage with a solid base in material locations so that technical aids can be used.
- set up cranes, etc. as expediently as possible.
Access to the site
Hang a site plan up at the entry to the building site to help people to find their way about. It should be possible to see from the plan where enforcement notices are applicable concerning the wearing of helmets, speed limits, one-way access and similar issues of significance to safety.
Access to and exits from the site should be separated and clearly signposted. Keep pedestrian traffic as far away as possible from motor traffic.
Roads and walkways must be planned and structured to handle the traffic using them at all times.
Among other things, the following must be taken into account:
- the weather – with necessary drainage and stable structuring of roads, with a surface which permits snow clearance,
- the ability to use necessary technical aids for transporting materials.
Fence of and lock the building site and site huts out of working hours. All buildings should be locked.
Keeping things clean and tidy
A messy building site creates a greater risk of accidents. At the same time, this may cause problems and give rise to conflicts between the gangs and companies on site.
Therefore, the Health and Safety Plan (PSS) must state how to keep the building site in order, when it is to be tidied, and by whom.
Good advice on keeping the building site tidy:
- Do not stack materials in such a way that they may topple or otherwise cause a hazard. Only place materials in the locations designated for them.
- Keep holes for wells and similar properly covered.
- Remove discarded scaffolding materials at once.
- Storage sites must be well considered and raised above the rest of the terrain.
- Always comply with the waste regulations of the municipality when disposing of waste.
- Do not position waste and materials in such as way as to prevent you clearing the site of snow, mud and water.
- Electrical cables and conduits must be suspended. If they cross access routes and roads, they must be suspended, buried or protected in some other way.
- Conduits for electricity and pipes for compressed air, gas and water to temporary site installations may be suspended on walls or in attics. If you have to place them on the ground or floor, they must be positioned so that nobody can fall over them or damage them.
- Dry sweeping is not permitted. Vacuum the area instead, and clean everything in a way which does not spread dust and other contamination hazardous to health.
- Do not remove covers, railings and other safety devices when tidying up.
- Arrange the site so that materials and similar are not in the way of motor and pedestrian traffic.
- Place waste and empty packaging in specially designated areas or in containers, and ensure that these are emptied regularly.
Screening falling objects
Protect both motor traffic and pedestrians against falling objects both on site and along buildings.
Set up screens, safety nets or other covers up on scaffolding and buildings if people move through entries and along the buildings.
If you are unable to screen or cordon off the area properly, you will be forced to divert the traffic.
Screens must project by at least two metres and may consist of boards 25 mm thick. Instead of screens, you can use safety nets as long as they are of fine mesh type with a mesh size of no more than 2 cm (not to be confused with dust nets). A denser mesh size may be necessary if, for example, threaded rods, bolts, nuts, etc. may be dropped.
When you place materials and tools on roofs or in other high places, you must ensure that they cannot slip or be pulled down by the wind.
Be aware that materials which are not heavy in relation to their size may land a long way from the building when they fall.