Welfare facilities must always be assigned when work starts on the building site. The employer is responsible for ensuring that the necessary facilities are present.
This will normally be in the form of a site hut which contains:
- Washbasins with running hot water.
- Bathing facilities with a changing room.
- Separate changing and eating areas.
- Two lockers for each employee.
The requirements for a site hut can also be met if employees use welfare facilities in an existing building, i.e. toilets, a canteen, bath, changing room, etc. However, the utility value must at a minimum be of the same standard as a general site hut.
Lightweight mobile huts
Site huts may be lightweight mobile huts if employees are working for a maximum of two weeks on site and the employer has a maximum of four people employed on site.
In the case of roadworks and other construction work where the building site moves as work progresses, the provisions could be altered in special cases.
Connection to drains
If on site work continues for more than two months, toilets must always be connected to the drains.
If work continues for less than two months, toilets must be connected to drains if this can be done without digging with a back-hoe or similar.
Drainage-free toilets must be of the same hygiene standards as toilets with water flushing and drains.
Quantities and distances
Welfare facilities must be situated expediently in relation to one another and the individual work sites.
- 1 washbasin for every 5 people,
- 1 shower for every 10 people,
- 1 toilet for every 15 people.
There must be a distance of no more than 200 m or a transport time of five minutes to a toilet.
Special rules are applicable to welfare facilities if tasks:
- will last for no more than 3 days,
- will not exceed 6 man-days in scope,
- or employees start and end their daily working hours somewhere other than the building site.
In the case of short-term work, the employer must ensure that during work, employees have access to:
- suitable eating areas, if meal breaks are taken while they work,
- washbasins with running hot water,
- changing facilities and the opportunity to store clothing and personal effects
- the opportunity to dry workwear if it has got wet while they work.
In addition to this, there must be showers and changing facilities where everyday clothing and workwear are kept separate if work:
- is very dusty or messy,
- involves a risk of contagion from materials,
- involves a risk of coming into contact with substances and materials which are harmful to the skin or which it is impossible to prevent the spread of,
- exposes employees to high temperatures or is physically very demanding.
Special requirements – drain work, asbestos, asphalt, lead, epoxy and polyurethane
If work is carried out where employees may come into contact with substances and materials, bacteria and similar which may be harmful to health, there are special rules for layout and use of bathing and changing facilities, among other things. See, for example, the section on asbestos, epoxy and waste water.
Layout of huts
The internal walls and floors of huts must be easy to clean. The height of the room must be at least 2.1 m. In very large units (pavilions), however, the height must be at least 2.3 m.
The rooms must be well ventilated, lit and insulated, and the temperature must be at least 18°C when they are used.
Tools, materials and similar must not be stored in these rooms.
Eating areas must be at least 1 m2 per person in addition to 1 m2 for the overall area. There must be a refrigerator and facilities for heating food, water for coffee and similar. The room must have two ventilation hatches.
The windows must constitute at least 10% of the floor area. They must have sun screens, and it must be possible to open at least one window.
The changing room must be at least 1 m2 per person without including washing and showering facilities.
The room must be fitted with a ventilation hatch.
Employees must be able to store their everyday clothes and workwear separately.
This may be done in two lockers or one divided locker. A single locker must measure 25 cm x 25 cm x 170 cm. A divided locker must be twice as wide; 50 cm.
There must be locks on the lockers, and they must have a shelf and a vent to the outside. There must be a bench by the lockers.
It must be possible to dry workwear in the lockers or on a common hanger.
It must be possible for staff to go directly from the changing room to the shower. Showers must be supplied with hot and cold running water.
The floor area in each shower must be at least 1 m2, or just 0.64 m2 for shower cubicles.
The rest of the area up to 1 m2 will be added to the changing room.
Airing facilities must be provided, mechanical where possible.
Toilets and washbasins
Toilets on the building site must normally be connected to the drains and have water flushing.
If it is not possible to connect the toilet to the drains, the cistern and tank must always be separate, and overall the toilet must be of the same hygiene standard as a toilet with water flushing.
The toilet cubicle must be at least 1 square metre in size.
If there is access to the toilet from outside, the room must be fitted with a washbasin. The floor area here must be at least 1.2 m².
Overnight accommodation, major projects
In the case of major building, construction and infrastructure projects where it may be anticipated that there will be a need to attract a workforce from outside the local area, part of the tender documentation or an offer by the employer may include the setting up of overnight accommodation options, camps.
This field is not part of the Working Environment Act, and so there are no clear rules on setting up and running accommodation facilities. Therefore, recommendations from BFA Bygge & Anlæg are provided below.
It is by no means always possible to position accommodation facilities immediately next to building and construction projects. When positioning accommodation facilities, you should always focus on maintaining optimal conditions in respect of transport (where this is of particularly great importance), ensuring that there is easy access to public transport and purchasing opportunities for everyday necessities, with opening hours which fit in with working hours at the site. Close proximity to leisure and sports facilities is also a must.
When running the camp, it is important to consider the following:
- A permanent caretaker/camp manager who is also able to support the social lives of camp residents.
- High standards of cleanliness.
- Good washing facilities/provisions.
- Simple and “homely” leisure activities.
- Policies on smoking and alcohol.
- Food on offer: breakfast and dinner; flexible order so that people can get something to eat at “odd times”.
The layout should support the following:
- Good sleep hygiene, mainly by preventing noise.
- Hygienic storage and preparation of food, a certain amount of privacy being offered when it comes to preparing food and eating.
- Sufficient quantities of healthy food in the camp mornings and evenings.
- Communication with base, e.g. telephones and Internet connections.
- Social fellowship.
Caravans and containers are not ideal accommodation facilities for construction workers.