Safe, correct access routes must always be established to buildings, construction pits, scaffolding, etc. These access routes will be established without holes and changes of level, and are kept free of waste and materials.
You should install the stairs to be fitted in buildings as early on as possible so that they can be used as access routes on site. Remember that they have to have railings on both the stairs and the landings before people start to use them.
Full railings with hand, knee and foot rails must be fitted on platforms. It will normally be possible to dispense with the foot rail on stairways.
Set up stair turrets if people are unable to use the stairs to be installed.
Ladders must only be used for access at low heights, and only if there is not much traffic on them. You must only transport light materials and tools which can be carried with one hand.
Ladders must be secured at the top and have an appropriate slope so that they remain stable. There must be a handle or handrail approximately 1 m above the top level.
Roads on the building site must be large enough and in such good condition as to allow all pedestrian and motor traffic to use them safely.
- Keep motor traffic and pedestrian traffic separate.
- Make the roads one way.
- As far as possible, avoid heavy and long vehicles having to reverse. If this is unavoidable, prepare procedures on how reversing can take place safely. For example, this may involve reversing being controlled by a banksman, or alarms being deployed when a vehicle is reversing.
- Set up the roads so that you can use suitable technical aids.
- Regularly remove mud from roads and ditches.
It must be easy to clear snow and lay grit. You must grit if there is any chance of overnight frost. Frost-free grit bins and low-lying, dewatered snow dumps should be ready for use before winter.
In dry periods, it may be necessary to water roads so as to prevent the spread of dust.
Structures and surfaces
It is a good idea to use the residential roads and parking areas to be constructed as site roads.
The temporary roads on the building site must also be built up so that heavy traffic can use them regardless of the weather. Therefore, they have to be dewatered so that they do not end up waterlogged.
The roads may, for example, be raised above ground level and provided with ditches which effectively lead the water to a permanent drain.
Walkways must be raised above ground level or be otherwise built up so that they can be used at all times and are free of water and mud.
During this work, there must be no mixing of pedestrian traffic with heavy motor vehicles such as trucks, excavators, telescopic loaders or similar.
When transporting materials, the minimum walkway width must be 80 cm, but it may be necessary to make them wider.
The width can be restricted to 60 cm in the case of access routes to be used by people only.
It must be possible to walk around in normal footwear between the car park and site huts. It must be possible to walk around in work footwear between site huts and work areas. You must be able to walk on the roads wearing rubber boots in the case of earthworks.
Changes of level in the terrain must be rectified by means of appropriate steps or ramps.
Escape routes must be described in the Health and Safety Plan (PSS), which also has to describe who is to establish, maintain and remove these.
Consider escape routes in the following instances:
- When working in excavations or construction pits.
- When working on roofs.
- When working with roofing felt (there must always be two access/escape routes here).
- When working on pipes or drains or with water, district heating, gas, etc.
- When demolishing building elements.
- When setting up and working on scaffolding.
- When working in closed rooms, wells, etc.
- When working in lifts, trucks, cranes, masts, chimneys and similar. It must be possible to call for help for emergency lowering, for example, from the location.
- When working in ducts, pipes and similar.
- When working in crawl spaces, roof spaces and similar.
- When spending time in huts, crew trucks, containers, etc.
- If work areas are at risk of flooding.
- Anywhere where staff may be subjected to substances and materials which are hazardous to health.
There must normally be escape routes in at least two directions. If this is not possible, there must be visual monitoring, contact with one or more people or other special arrangements which make the site secure.
It is the responsibility of each individual employer to assess the need for escape and evacuation routes in connection with their own work before their employees start working on site. If this assessment requires changes to the developer’s planning, this must be clarified with the developer.
Set up site huts so that parking and the material storage between the huts is prevented as far as possible.
Conduits for electricity and telephones and pipes for water and drains must be positioned appropriately so that individual huts can easily be connected to one another.
Site huts must have good lighting so that people can find their way about safely. Water and drainage pipes must be frostproofed.
You should take into account the following when positioning site huts:
- There must be an access route to a public road or car park.
- The distance to the work sites must not be too great.
- It must be possible to access site huts from a public road or car park without passing through an area in which helmets have to be worn.
- You must be able to access the huts from the public road wearing light shoes no matter what the weather.
- Position the huts so that there is at least 2.5 m between window sides. This ensures there is sufficient daylight.
- There must be escape routes in at least two directions from all huts. These routes must be at least 2 m wide and must not be blocked by materials or other items.
- Position the site huts in places where they are protected from falling materials and subject to a minimum of inconvenience due to dust and other air pollution, noise, vibration, splashes, etc.
There must be a telephone on site which employees can use.